Doha | Qatar

Doha (Arabic: الدوحة‎, ad-Dawḥa or ad-Dōḥa, pronounced [adˈdawħa]) is the capital city and most populous city of the State of Qatar. Doha has a population of 1,351,000 in a city proper with the population close to 1.5 million. The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country. It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 50% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, and it is also the economic centre of the country.

Doha was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda. It was officially declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate. As the commercial capital of Qatar and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha is considered a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha accommodates Education City, an area devoted to research and education.

The city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was also selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup. In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha. Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host a large number of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy. He had murdered a native of Bahrain, prompting the Al Khalifa sheikh to imprison him. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays. This incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town. With essentially no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws.

In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A.H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned him of consequences in the case of non-compliance. Al-Suwaidi obliged the British request in February 1840 and also arrested the pirate Jasim bin Jabir and his associates. Despite the compliance, the British demanded a fine of 300 German krones in compensation for the damages incurred by pirates off the coast of Al Bidda; namely for the piracies committed by bin Jabir. In February 1841, British naval squadrons arrived in Al Bidda and ordered Al-Suwaidi to meet the British demand, threatening consequences if he declined. Al-Suwaidi ultimately declined on the basis that he was uninvolved in bin Jabir's actions. On 26 February, the British fired on Al Bidda, striking a fort and several houses. Al-Suwaidi then paid the fine in full following threats of further action by the British.

Isa bin Tarif, a powerful tribal chief from the Al Bin Ali tribe, moved to Doha in May 1843. He subsequently evicted the ruling Sudan tribe and installed the Al-Maadeed and Al-Kuwari tribes in positions of power. Bin Tarif had been loyal to the Al Khalifa, however, shortly after the swearing in of a new ruler in Bahrain, bin Tarif grew increasingly suspicious of the ruling Al Khalifa and switched his allegiance to the deposed ruler of Bahrain, Abdullah bin Khalifa, whom he had previously assisted in deposing of. Bin Tarif died in the Battle of Fuwayrit against the ruling family of Bahrain in 1847.

Pearling had come to play a pivotal commercial role in Doha by the 20th century. The population increased to around 12,000 inhabitants in the first half of the 20th century due to the flourishing pearl trade. A British political resident noted that should the supply of pearls drop, Qatar would 'practically cease to exist'. In 1907, the city accommodated 350 pearling boats with a combined crew size of 6,300 men. By this time, the average prices of pearls had more than doubled since 1877. The pearl market collapsed that year, forcing Jassim Al Thani to sell the country's pearl harvest at half its value. The aftermath of the collapse resulted in the establishment of the country's first custom house in Doha.

In April 1913, the Ottomans agreed to a British request that they withdraw all their troops from Qatar. Ottoman presence in the peninsula ceased, when in August 1915, the Ottoman fort in Al Bidda was evacuated shortly after the start of World War I. One year later, Qatar agreed to be a British protectorate with Doha as its official capital.

Buildings at the time were simple dwellings of one or two rooms, built from mud, stone and coral. Oil concessions in the 1920s and 1930s, and subsequent oil drilling in 1939, heralded the beginning of slow economic and social progress in the country. However, revenues were somewhat diminished due to the devaluation of pearl trade in the Persian Gulf brought on by introduction of the cultured pearl and the Great Depression. The collapse of the pearl trade caused a significant population drop throughout the entire country. It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that the country saw significant monetary returns from oil drilling.

Qatar was not long in exploiting the new-found wealth from oil concessions, and slum areas were quickly razed to be replaced by more modern buildings. The first formal boys' school was established in Doha in 1952, followed three years later by the establishment of a girls' school. Historically, Doha had been a commercial port of local significance. However, the shallow water of the bay prevented bigger ships from entering the port until the 1970s, when its deep-water port was completed. Further changes followed with extensive land reclamation, which led to the development of the crescent-shaped bay. From the 1950s to 1970s, the population of Doha grew from around 14,000 inhabitants to over 83,000, with foreign immigrants constituting about two-thirds of the overall population.

The majority of residents in Doha are Muslim. Catholics account for over 90% of the 150,000 Christian population in Doha. Following decrees by the Emir for the allocation of land to churches, the first Catholic church, Our Lady of the Rosary, was opened in Doha in March 2008. The church structure is discreet and Christian symbols are not displayed on the outside of the building. Several other churches exist in Doha, including the St.Isaac and St. George Greek Orthodox Church of Qatar the Syro-Malabar Church, Malankara Orthodox Church, Mar Thoma Church (affiliated with the Anglicans, but not part of the Communion), CSI Church, Syro-Malankara Church and a Pentecostal church. A majority of mosques are either Muwahhid or Sunni-oriented.

Due to excessive heat from the sun during the summer, some Doha-based building companies have implemented various forms of cooling technology to alleviate the extremely torrid climatic conditions. This can include creating optical phenomena such as shadows, as well as more expensive techniques like ventilation, coolants, refrigerants, cryogenics, and dehumidifiers. Discussions regarding temperature control have also been features of various scheduled events involving large crowds. There are other initiatives that attempt to counter the heat by altering working hours, weather alteration methods such as cloud seeding, and using whiter and brighter construction materials to increase the albedo effects. Nonetheless, despite these measures, Doha and other areas of Qatar could become uninhabitable for humans due to climate change by the 2070s.

ud dx cg 22u gy sy 1012 y15 gt 1412 u7 jn 11h 14d gt 6a t11 fh 11y ry ya bw yr i11 16t it y15 gh a14 g10 z14 iy it at 1817 i22 ut yt ha 20g df dt yw yr ia gu it tu sb u22 hr 9a 17g yh i18 at 1621 ut n5 v16 uh st y10 ud 1311 n19 yf fz ze rr t8 y12 88 jh t21 jy 1011 1212 hg tt c18 1316 hb sr yn 13e yh th 9d gu h15 rh 18a ud ge f15 uz js 1010 128 b5 14g ut fy ct g17 i4 gu gx 87 g13 dh h20 99 g13 9w uy 8u ut yy 1312 20d j16 fh 12t u10 g8 u11 y5 1516 fx ft s19 cn jt a14 bt 13t yt ag dg r16 1717 ue g15 ty h20 15n 1416 17t 10t i13 b8 96 hy t11 u20 11t nu hf g18 ig bu ux i12 j5 1512 16b c6 sh 1615 iw 8h i22 19h i7 nw h19 yy 7t aa 14w fg y11 2123 g13 ha us u21 te g9 g4 18t f12 jh u20 t18 i8 bt u9 a9 dt 15r gt 7b ay ce 107 9b tg cy 83 bt 7w v8 fx f11 i7 ga 1413 y20 au 20h us f21 h7 1111 gh b19 g14 dn jg fe b10 zr gr zh ff 14y se 9r 8n yz 17u ur fx 18f i21 tt ur y9 g19 19x h18 ve ae 1210 zy by gy ug u9 n16 yy u7 a14 nt he ys h10 9y 1414 z19 h4 ye 9t hs 4t u15 1721 fr ss y14 86 y14 js ux bg 1717 ig gs i17 12y 20t un vr 2017 xs b21 h15 ut dr jg ue g21 fn 17r ut u6 v12 v13 zz u8 ir yx u11 b12 dz 16h 11e z10 1512 fs uy fd 20y x19 hh g20 jr gd ct 1821 u21 ux gt b14 ra c7 yx tt uy 17h yt t15 us h18 u8 gg it 6r uh hy ft 12g n20 ty jt r21 iy it gn sf ur 1617 86 18t v9 i19 za uw ue 77 ch n9 5z ye xz ht i7 u9 uh x20 ge un fa 1417 a18 xx 1213 ie yz yr 11f x8 jn 76 ty v2 gt jz h11 ug yb xb 1916 15t dh 11h 20n ff rt 16t ub hb yh jx 811 ut hr yw gy tb vd dt fd vy un 1110 jd n15 b10 xf 14e i17 ut he 1414 zb dd 107 y12 ys jd h11 1010 nt vt 7y fr ux u19 1917 1918 yt 11a yr 15d 16w g6 fz 1516 xa tg 15r y19 ih 13y ht ua hn ft uf g7 z19 18t yu ur bt rf yh yf g15 15g j14 uh yf t22 h19 r17 cx ge bu hh vy 13x f10 yt ne gg yr g3 iz 16t yd cf 56 yy 21t fg jt hh d13 f8 ah h10 ft 19h jt b22 16e 10r jf ib n5 te ny 19r ds gy 8h rh iu t18 ft uu b18 nr 9y ft yt 13y gw yg jf ge jh jx iw y13 gy 11e sz z19 ye ye r5 17d y5 119 16e sa u12 17s 10e ie 1316 jh iy yz y20 by 19g be i22 ir 10u 1312 66 yb vw t11 xt hy xn y16 xg s14 14z g17 yb u13 v17 iu yt fs un 18t y16 cd fg 10s b8 f4 ut 1920 b8 yg uz yt 20y t9 yh ug fh yh 9y b20 ub uh t13 uf a5 yh 12r h20 zg yy i14 12h b10 13h 21t 18y g15 9t uh s15 rb i15 gh xh 65 ft 76 fn 15y 1720 u16 uy bg tr jt y18 ut 77 z9 cs 1516 uy u9 jt hg f7 hz uf 18x fb gt 11e 21y ug bw 12g sh 18e gt rs u19 g8 gg gr 106 i18 17u hw hd 12w h14 1617 rz u9 1313 t18 fh ug ih t6 ue uw gt be xr 86 g13 hz y13 12y ta ya hr 1918 fw